In fact, Allah (SWT) created this universe and brought it into the existence according to a precise system, and connected its system with one’s actions, good or bad; so that any sort of corruption one does will defects the universe proportionally. The perfection of this universe and its creation depends on obtaining the Great Pleasure of Allah (SWT). As His slave, we are in dire need to know what He loves and approves of to do, and what He forbids to avoid. He (SWT) therefore, sent Prophets and Messengers, revealed and supported them with Divine revelations to give glad tidings to those who sincerely obey them, and warn those who disbelieve and disobey them.
Since such Divine Message and revelation has discontinued by the mission of our beloved Prophet (PBUH), we are in dire need too to clearly follow the Divine Message, know his Sunnah and rituals of our religion.
Hajj is one of the basic five pillars of our Divine Religion (Islam). It represents one of the best experiences in the life of a Muslim. It is obligatory on every Muslim, man or woman, who is capable of a journey to Makkah once in a lifetime. The pilgrim should perform the rituals and duties of Hajj during the Sacred Month of Dhul-Hijjah, the 12th month of Islamic calendar.
Mainly, this article highlights the rituals and duties of pilgrimage during the visit to Makkah. What a pilgrim must do? Explaining the types of pilgrimage, elaborating the rituals of Hajj in the light of Quran and Sunnah and drawing a clear vision of performing Hajj.
How to Perform Hajj? (Infographic: Hajj Map)
Types of Hajj?
There are three ways of performing Hajj. You may choose whichever type of Hajj you wish. But the best kind of them is Hajj at-Tamattu.
Hajj al-Ifrad (single): To perform the Hajj only.
Hajj al-Qiran (Combined): This means to perform Hajj and Umrah combined or jointly without interruption until one casts the pebbles on the Eid day, and shaves off his head. This kind of Hajj requires Hadee (a sacrificial animal).
Hajj at-Tamattu (interrupted): Performing the Umrah during the months of Hajj. Once a pilgrimage completes the Umrah, he may take off the Ihram only to re-enter it on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah (known as the Day of Tarwiyah) with the intention of performing the Hajj. The performer of this type of Hajj does not have to go to the Meeqat to re-enter the state of Ihram for performing the Hajj; he is allowed to do so in his residence in Makkah or Mina. This kind of Hajj requires a Hadee (a sacrificial animal) as well.
Rituals of Hajj
Ihram is the state entered into at the Meeqat in which certain acts and types of clothing are forbidden. It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intend to go to Hajj or Umrah to take ghusl (bath) for Ihram. Then the male may wear whatever clothes he wishes that are not made in the shape of the body. (unstitched clothes). The woman is not allowed to remove anything from her clothes that are prescribed for her in the shariah. One may use the body oil and perfume as well. The women should use that which has no odor. All these should be made before making an intention of Ihram at the meeqat.
Ihram and Intention (Niyyah)
It is obligatory for he who comes at the meeqat to assume Ihram and to make the intention of performing the Hajj. He must utter words and actions that are reported in the authentic Ahadith. Recite the Talbiyyah intending to enter into Ihram.
Meeqats (places for assuming Ihram) are five: Dhul Hulaifah, Al-Juhfah, Qarn-ul-Manazil, Yalamlam and Dhatu Irq. These are for those who live there and who pass by them intending Hajj or Umrah. As for those who live in Makkah or near then they are allowed to make Ihram from their houses. The inhabitants of Makkah can make Ihram from Makkah.
Entering the Holy Mosque
While entering the Holy Mosque, one should not forget to enter it by the right foot, and say the supplication.
Tawaf of Qudoom (arrival circumambulation)
One should go straight to Black Stone and facing it make takbeer. One may say Bismillah before it – as it is authentically reported from Ibn Umar. If possible he should touch the Black Stone and kiss it, but if it is not possible then he can make a sign towards it with his hand. It should be done in every single circuit. On arriving between the two corners, he should say this supplication:
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
Praying two units at Maqam-e-Ibrahim
After completing the seven rounds, he should place the Maqam-e-Ibrahim between himself and the Kabah and then pray two units of prayer. He should recite Surat-ul-Kafiroon and Surat Al-Ikhlas in these two units of prayer.
Sai between Safa and Marwah
After praying two units of prayer at Maqam-e-Ibrahim, a performer must do sai between Safa and Marwah (two small hills). On reaching Safa hill one should recite:
إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَآئِرِ اللّهِ أَبْدَأُ بِمَا بَدَأ اللهُ بِهِ.
He should go off for seven times.
Calling aloud with Talbiyyah (for Hajj on the Day or Tarwiah)
The Day of Tarwiah is on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah. One should call out the talbiyyah of Hajj. The performer of Hajj should go to Mina and pray Zuhr prayer and remain there, spending the night and praying the rest of the five compulsory prayers. Shortening all prayer into two units but not combining them.
Proceeding to Arafat
One the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah, after the sun rises, he should move off towards Arafat reciting the Talbiyyah. There the Imam should give an appropriate Khutbah to the people, lead them in Zuhr and Asr prayers, shortening and combine them in the time of Zuhr with one Adhan and two Iqamah.
Standing in Arafat
Standing in Arafat is one of the important pillars of the Hajj without it the Hajj will not be completed. One should stand there and ask Allah for His mercy. While standing in Arafat one should recite this supplication:
لا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ المُلْكُ ؛ وَلَهُ الحَمْدُ ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
It is not allowed for those who perform Hajj to fast that day. He should remain in such state, remembering his Lord, reciting the Talbiyyah, making supplication as he wishes until the sun sets.
After the sun sets, he should leave Arafat for Muzdalifah, going calmly and with tranquility. After reaching Muzdalifah, he should perform Maghrib and Isha prayers there with one adhan and two Iqamah. The pilgrim is allowed to sleep and rest there until Fajr. After the dawn appears, he should establish Fajr Prayer with Adhan and Iqamah.
At Mahsar Al-Haram
After spending the night in Muzdalifah, he should go to the Mashar Al-Haram (a small mountain in Muzdalifah), climb it, faces the Qiblah and recite (Tahweed, takbeer, tahleel) and declares Allah’s Oneness and supplicate Allah till the brightness of the sky. Then, before the sun rises he should leave for Mina calmly and reciting the Talbiyyah.
The pilgrim must collect or pick stones (pebbles) in Mina, for the intending to do the stoning of Jamrat-ul-Aqabah. He should face the Jamarah (Pillar), having the Makkah on his left and Minah to his right, stone it with seven small pebbles reciting takbeer on each pebble.
After casting the pebbles, slaughter your sacrificial animal or have it slaughtered. If one cannot afford to sacrifice an animal, he may fast for three days during the Hajj season, and seven after returning home. After sacrifice, the pilgrim should shorten his hair or shave it off. As for females, it suffices them to gather the end of their hair and clip a piece of it.
After sacrifice, the pilgrim should go to the Sacred House and make tawaf, seven times around. Then he should do sai between Safa and Marwah as before – except for he who does Hajj of Quran and Ifrad – the first Sai being enough for them. On completing tawaf everything will be lawful for him, even the woman (sexual intercourse).
Staying overnight in Mina
The pilgrim should returns to Mina and remain there for the days of Tashreeq. Stone three Jamarat with seven stones in each those days.
The Farewell Tawaf
On deciding to travel back and leaving the Makkah and doing all the rituals, the pilgrim should make farewell tawaf of the Sacred House. On finishing his tawaf and leaving the Holy Mosque, he should not forget to leave by his left foot first and saying the supplication.