The End of the World

Have you ever wondered about the end of times? When is the word destined to finish? What are the signs of the hour? We all have these questions arise every now and then. Islam has already provided us with the answers to these questions.

End of the world

Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran warning us about the Day of Resurrection:

ٱقۡتَرَبَتِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ وَٱنشَقَّ ٱلۡقَمَرُ

The Hour has drawn near and the moon was split in two.

(القمر: 1)

یَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ أَیَّانَ مُرۡسَىٰهَاۖ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّیۖ لَا یُجَلِّیهَا لِوَقۡتِهَاۤ إِلَّا هُوَۚ ثَقُلَتۡ فِی ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ ٰ⁠تِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ لَا تَأۡتِیكُمۡ إِلَّا بَغۡتَةࣰۗ یَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِیٌّ عَنۡهَاۖ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا یَعۡلَمُونَ

They ask you ˹O Prophet˺ regarding the Hour, “When will it be?” Say, “That knowledge is only with my Lord. He alone will reveal it when the time comes. It is too tremendous for the heavens and the earth and will only take you by surprise.” They ask you as if you had full knowledge of it. Say, “That knowledge is only with Allah, but most people do not know.”

(الأعراف: 187)

وَلِلَّهِ غَیۡبُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ ٰ⁠تِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَمَاۤ أَمۡرُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ إِلَّا كَلَمۡحِ ٱلۡبَصَرِ أَوۡ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَیۡءࣲ قَدِیرࣱ

To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs ˹the knowledge of˺ the unseen in the heavens and the earth. Bringing about the Hour would only take the blink of an eye, or even less. Surely Allah is Most Capable of everything.

(النحل: 77)

By these verses, we know that the knowledge about the hour belongs to the only Allah. None of us knows when it would occur. So, regarding these verses, what are our responsibilities to face the Day of Resurrection? There is only one thing which we have to do, and that is its preparation. We have also been warned of this time through the signs of the hour which will indicate when the time is near.

At the end of time, within an hour the whole earth will be destroyed and the sky will not remain as it is. This resurrection will be universal.

end of times

 Another type of resurrection is related to every living thing. This is called death. The person who dies is as if his resurrection has taken place. That is why the Prophet (PBUH) said when a countryman asked him “When will the Hour be?” He (PBUH) asked him in reply:

وماذا أعْدَدْتَ لَها

“What have you prepared for it?”

(صحيح البخاري: 3688)

Therefore, it is necessary for all human beings to believe in the resurrection, but at the same time, it is very important for them to prepare for it.

Now the question is, if we die before the hour comes, why should we prepare for it and why do we need to know the signs of the hour?

The answer is that as Muslims we are obliged to believe in the unseen, and we must tell Allah about our worldly life before all creatures when the Day of Resurrection comes. Therefore, we must prepare for it. At the same time, we are required to do good deeds before the hour comes, because when the sun would rise from the west instead of the east, the door to repentance would be closed. All the minor signs of the hour are the prelude to the big signs or their complements. And every major sign has many purposes behind it. Through some signs, the difference between faith and hypocrisy and disbelief and polytheism will become clear and the difference between right and wrong will also become apparent.

These signs also include the miracles of the prophecy of Muhammad (PBUH) as well. There is no religion in the world that foretells things about the future thousands of years before. We have already seen that many of the signs have come true! And that each foretelling is nothing but the truth.

Does researching about the signs of the hour and learning about them offer us any benefit in our lives? Or is it mere information, which a person adds to his cultural credit without it having any real impact on his life?

Since the mention of the signs of the hour is found in the Quran and Sunnah, it, therefore, brings many benefits to one’s life, including the following: Fulfilling the obligation of believing in the unseen, which is one of the six pillars of faith. Allah says:

ٱلَّذِینَ یُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡغَیۡبِ وَیُقِیمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ یُنفِقُونَ

“Who believe in the Ghayb and perform As-Salaah (Iqamat-as-Salat)”

(البقرة: 3)


Abu Hurayrah (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

أُمِرْتُ أنْ أُقاتِلَ النّاسَ حتّى يقولوا: لا إلَهَ إلّا اللَّهُ، فمَن قالَ: لا إلَهَ إلّا اللَّهُ، فقَدْ عَصَمَ مِنِّي مالَهُ ونَفْسَهُ إلّا بحَقِّهِ، وحِسابُهُ على اللَّهِ

“I have been commanded to fight the people until they say la ilaha ill-Allah. Whoever says la ilaha ill-Allah, his wealth and his life are protected from me except in cases dictated by Islamic law, and his reckoning will be with Allah.”

(صحيح البخاري: 6924)

Belief in the unseen means believing in everything that Allah, may He be Glorified and Exalted, has related to us or what His Messenger (PBUH) has told us and which has been confirmed to have been authentically narrated from him; whether we witness these events or not, we know them to be true.

The book “The End of the World” by Dr. Muhammad Abdul Rahman Al-Arifi is the perfect book to learn about the end of time and includes all the major and minor signs of the hour. These include the appearance of the Dajjal, the descent of ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (AS), the emergence of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj, the emergence of the Beast, the rising of the sun from the west, and other events mentioned in saheeh (authentic) reports.

End of the World Book

Knowledge of the signs of the hour encourages one to obey Allah and prepare for the Day of Resurrection. It is an admonition for the heedless and encouragement for the repentant to not be content with this world. This is what the Prophet (PBUH) did with those who were around him when he realised that one of the signs of the hour was close at hand. It is recorded in the collections of Bukhari and Muslim that:

اسْتَيْقَظَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنَ النَّوْمِ مُحْمَرًّا وَجْهُهُ يَقُولُ ‏”‏ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، وَيْلٌ لِلْعَرَبِ مِنْ شَرٍّ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ، فُتِحَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ رَدْمِ يَاجُوجَ وَمَاجُوجَ مِثْلُ هَذِهِ ‏”‏‏.‏ وَعَقَدَ سُفْيَانُ تِسْعِينَ أَوْ مِائَةً‏.‏ قِيلَ أَنَهْلِكُ وَفِينَا الصَّالِحُونَ قَالَ ‏”‏ نَعَمْ، إِذَا كَثُرَ الْخَبَثُ

The Prophet (PBUH) got up from his sleep with a flushed red face and said, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. Woe to the Arabs, from the Great evil that is nearly approaching them. Today a gap has been made in the wall of Gog and Magog like this.” (Sufyan illustrated this by forming the number 90 or 100 with his fingers.) It was asked, “Shall we be destroyed though there are righteous people among us?” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Yes, if evil increased.”

(صحيح البخاري: 7059)

It may offer an explanation of shar‘i (Islamic legislation) rulings and fiqhi (Islamic jurisprudence) issues.

The companions once asked the Prophet concerning the length of days – where one day will be like a year and another day will be like a month – during the time of the Dajjal, “Will it be sufficient to offer only a day’s worth of prayers during those days?” The Prophet replied:

“No, rather estimate the timing.”

From this we can also derive the ruling for the prayer of those Muslims who live in areas where day or night may last for several months.

The fact that the Prophet (PBUH) was aware of the signs of the hour which are matters of the unseen and whose knowledge cannot be acquired by mere speculation is evidence for the truthfulness of his message, and that he is truly a Messenger from Allah, Glorified and Exalted. Allah is the Knower of the unseen and the seen.

Our knowledge of the signs of the hour allows us to deal with them in the prescribed manner, eliminating any confusion concerning them. For example, we are told about the Dajjal in detail: the description of his eye, his forehead, and the things that he will have with him so that we do not fall prey to his fitnah (trial); rather [through these signs] we will come to know that he is truly a dajjal (liar).

The discussion of the signs of the hour is essential because so that we are mentally prepared for what may take place so that we are not taken by surprise [when the events do occur]

It is also necessary because of offering hope because one of the signs of the Hour is the victory of Islam and its spread throughout the earth and the diminishing of Christianity and Judaism. This is based on the prophecies which mention Islam prevailing over and being superior to all other religions, even though the mushrikoon (polytheists, disbelievers) hate (it).

Islam blocks the way for deceivers, such as astrologers, fortune tellers, soothsayers and their like, who claim to have knowledge of future events. Islam relates to us, through revelation, a great about these future events which are signs of the hour.

Belief in the signs of the hour strengthens and increases faith as it would solidify our faith when we see the signs appear before us.

Hence there is a need to educate people regarding the end of times. There are many books written on the world ending however the book, End of the World, by Darussalam is one of a kind. It’s available in both English as well as Urdu. This book is the English translation of the book نهاية العالم by Dr. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-‘Areefi, who is a  Professor of ‘Aqeedah (beliefs) and Contemporary Madh-habs and Religions at King Sa‘ood University, Riyadh, and also one of the Members of the Senior Council for Islamic Media. 

The author has provided us with authentic content in the light of the Quarn, sunnah and salaf and has explained points with the help of pictures and maps. So, the book is very comprehensive on its topic. We can recognize its value by the table of content mentioned below:

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Why discuss the signs of the Hour?
  3. Guidelines on dealing with and understanding the Signs of the Hour
  4. Guidelines on applying the texts on the Signs of the Hour to real-life events
  5. Meanings of the Signs of the Hour
  6. Categories of the signs of the Hour
  7. List of the Minor Signs
  8. The sending of our Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him)
  9. The Death of our Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him)
  10. The Splitting of the Moon

*Complete table of contents is mentioned at the end of the blog.

This book alone is enough to learn everything there is about the end of times. Let’s take a look at some extracts to get a glimpse into the book.

Extract 01: Read about the sign of the interest in books other than Islam.

Spread of books other than the Qur’an

One of the signs of the Hour is that people will become more interested in books; these books will be bought, printed, and marketed in bookstores more than the Book of Allah.

This Hadeeth is supported by the previous one, in which the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Among [the signs of] the approach of the Hour…and the bad thing will become widespread among the people.”

I said,

“What is the bad thing?”

He said,

“Whatever is written other than the book of Allah.

The End of the World Book

Extract 02:  Read about the incident of the wild animals speaking

As for wild animals speaking,

This occurred during the time of the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him)

Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri said, “While a Bedouin was tending his sheep in the vicinity of Madeenah, a wolf attacked and took one of his sheep. The Bedouin caught up with the wolf, saved the sheep from it and tried to scare it off, but the wolf refused to leave. Then it sat down, wagging its tail and talking to him. The wolf said, ‘You have taken the provision that Allah granted to me.’ The shepherd said, ‘I am amazed that a wolf is wagging its tail and speaking to me!’ The wolf said, ‘By Allah, you are forgetting something more amazing than that.’ The shepherd asked, ‘What is more amazing than that?’ The wolf answered, ‘The Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) is in Al-Nakhlatayn, between the two lava fields, telling the people news of what happened in the past and what will happen in the future.’ The Bedouin drove his sheep to a safe place in Madeenah, then went to the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) and knocked on his door. When the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) had finished praying, he asked, ‘Where is the Bedouin with the sheep?’ The Bedouin stood up and the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘Tell the people what you heard and saw.’ The Bedouin related to the people what he had seen and heard from the wolf. The Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘He has told the truth – [these are] signs which will come before the Hour. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, the Hour will not begin until one of you leaves his family and his shoe, his whip, or his stick tell him news of his family after he left.’”

The speech of cattle has also occurred Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “While a man was driving a cow, he placed a load on its back. The cow turned to him and said, ‘I was not created for this; rather I was created for tilling.’” The people said, “Subhaan Allah!” We were amazed that a cow could talk. The Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I believe it, and so do Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”

As seen from the extracts and the table of contents, the book is not only very comprehensive in its subject matter but a very easy and interesting read.  Give the book a read for yourself and let us know what you think.

Interested in similar books? Take a look at the suggestions below.

*Complete table of contents

  1. Disappearance of the Noble Companions (May Allah be pleased with them)
  2. Conquest of Jerusalem
  3. Widespread Death like Murrain of Sheep
  4. Prevalence of Turmoil (fitnah) of all kinds
  5. Prevalence of satellite channels
  6. The Prophet’s foretelling of the battle of Siffeen
  7. The emergence of the Khawaarij
  8. Claims of Prophethood by charlatans and liars
  9. Spread of Security and Prosperity
  10. Appearance of Fire in the Hijaz
  11. Fighting the Turks
  12. Appearance of Unjust men who Beat the People with Whips
  13. A Great Deal of Killing
  14. Loss of Honesty and its Disappearance from people’s Hearts
  15. Following the Ways of Nations who came before
  16. The Slave Woman Giving Birth to her Master
  17. Appearance of women who are clothed yet naked
  18. Barefoot, naked shepherds competing in the construction of lofty buildings
  19. Greeting only those whom one knows
  20. Widespread trade — women taking part in business with their husbands — domination by some traders of the market
  21. False testimony
  22. Withholding true testimony
  23. Prevalence of ignorance
  24. Widespread stinginess and miserliness severing ties of Kinship being a bad neighbour
  25. Honest people being regarded as treacherous and Treacherous people being trusted
  26. Death of prominent and noble people and the prevalence of ignoble people
  27. Not caring about the source of wealth and whether it is Halaal or Haraam
  28. Fay’ will become limited to some people to the exclusion of others
  29. When the entrusted item is regarded like booty
  30. Obedience to wives and disobedience to mothers
  31. Knowledge will be sought for a reason other than for the sake of Allah
  32. Bringing friends close and keeping fathers away
  33. Raising voices in the mosque
  34. Evildoers becoming leaders of their tribes
  35. The leader of the people will be the vilest of them
  36. Showing respect to a man for fear of his evil
  37. Adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments will be regarded as permissible
  38. Wishing for death
  39. The coming of a time when a man will be a believer In the morning and a disbeliever in the evening
  40. Adornment of mosques and competition therein
  41. Adornment of houses
  42. Frequency of storms as the Hour draws nigh
  43. Prevalence of literacy
  44. Earning money by means of speaking and boasting about ones eloquence
  45. Spread of books other than the Qur’an
  46. A time in which there will be many readers but few Fuqaha’ and scholars
  47. Seeking knowledge from people who are insignificant
  48. Sudden death
  49. Rulership of the foolish
  50. Time passing more quickly
  51. The foolish will speak
  52. The most fortunate of the people in worldly matters Will be Luka‘ibn Luka‘ (an evil person)
  53. Taking the mosques as thoroughfares
  54. Dowries will become expensive and then cheap – Horses will become expensive and then cheap
  55. Markets becoming closer together
  56. Nations calling one another to get together against the Muslim Ummah
  57. People not wanting to lead the prayer
  58. Fulfilment of the believer’s dreams
  59. Prevalence of lying
  60. A lot of earthquakes
  61. Discord among the people
  62. There will be a lot of women and few men
  63. Prevalence and open flaunting of immorality
  64. Taking money for reading Qur’an
  65. Obesity will become widespread among the people
  66. Appearance of people who will give testimony when they are not asked to do so; Appearance of people who will make vows and not fulfil them
  67. The strong devouring the weak
  68. Not ruling in accordance with that which Allah revealed
  69. Large numbers of Romans and small numbers of Arabs
  70. Great abundance of wealth among the people
  71. The earth giving up its treasure
  72. Transformation – Landslides pelting (with stones)
  73. Rain against which houses of brick cannot offer any protection
  74. Tribulation which will utterly destroy the Arabs
  75. Trees speaking Rocks speaking and supporting the Muslims Muslims Fighting the Jews
  76. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold
  77. The coming of a time when a man will be given the choice of being labeled incompetent or committing immorality
  78. Arabia becoming meadows and rivers once more
  79. A time when one prostration will be equivalent to this world and everything in it
  80. The new moon looking bigger than usual
  81. A time when there will be no one left but he will go and live in Al-Shaam (the Levant)
  82. A great battle between the Muslims and the Romans The conquest of Constantinople
  83. No inheritance will be divided the people will not rejoice over booty
  84. People will go back to ancient weapons and mounts
  85. Jerusalem will flourish Madeenah will be in ruins, Devoid of inhabitants and visitors
  86. Madeenah will be cleansed of its evil people as the Bellows eliminates the dross of iron
  87. The appearance of a man from Qahtaan who will be obeyed by the people
  88. Appearance of a man called Al-Jahjaah
  89. Wild animals and inanimate objects will speak – The end of a whip will speak A shoelace will speak -A man’s thigh will give news of his family
  90. As for wild animals speaking,
  91. The Hour will not begin until Islam diminishes – The Qur’an will Disappear from the Mus-hafs and from people’s hearts
  92. An army that will seek to attack the Ka‘bah and will be swallowed up by the earth, from the first to the last of them
  93. Hajj to the sacred House of Allah will be abandoned
  94. Some Arab tribes will go back to worshipping idols
  95. The tribe of Quraysh will die out
  96. Destruction of the Ka‘bah at the hands of a man from Abyssinia
  97. The sending of a pleasant wind that will take the souls of the believers
  98. The buildings of Makkah becoming high
  99. The last of this Ummah cursing the first of it
  100. New means of transportation … cars
  101. The appearance of the Mahdi
  102. From where will he appear?
  103. When will he appear?
  104. Commentary on the Hadeeth:
  105. Hadeeths narrated concerning the Mahdi 1
  106. A brief look at some of those who claimed to be the Mahdi
  107. The circumstances in which he will appear:
  108. A brief discussion of the issue of dreams
  109. Some of the scholars denied the idea of the Mahdi, including the following:
  110. Major Signs of the Hour
  111. Major Sign (1)
  112. Who is the Dajjaal?
  113. Why is he called Al-Maseeh Al-Dajjaal?
  114. What claims will the Dajjaal make?
  115. The story of Ibn Sayyaad
  116. The reason why the Dajjaal is not mentioned in the Qur’an
  117. Hadeeths which indicate that the emergence of the Dajjaal is one of the signs of the Hour
  118. The Dajjaal is the greatest Fitnah that will ever appear on the face of the earth
  119. Events before the appearance of the Dajjaal
  120. Something that will precede his appearance
  121. Physical description of the Dajjaal
  122. The place where he will emerge
  123. The story of Al-Jassasah and the Dajjaal
  124. The facts about the Bermuda Triangle and its connection to the Dajjaal
  125. Geographical location
  126. Disappearances in the Bermuda
  127. The beginning of disappearances in the Bermuda
  128. Disappearance of aircraft
  129. Explanation for the mystery of this triangle
  130. Indications that the appearance of the Dajjaal is imminent
  131. How will the Dajjaal emerge?
  132. The cause of his appearance
  133. He will travel rapidly around the world
  134. Places to which the Dajjaal will go
  135. The turmoil (Fitnah) of the Dajjaal
  136. Incorrect beliefs about the Dajjaal
  137. The followers of the Dajjaal
  138. The disbelievers and hypocrites
  139. The ignorance of the Bedouin
  140. People with faces like hammered shields
  141. How long the Dajjaal will stay
  142. How to be safe from the turmoil of the Dajjaal
  143. Seeking the help of Allah
  144. Knowing the names and attributes of Allah
  145. Reciting the opening Verses of Soorat Al-Kahf, which are the first ten Verses
  146. The reason for this:
  147. Reciting Soorat Al-Kahf in its entirety
  148. Fleeing to one of the two holy sanctuaries and seeking refuge there
  149. Seeking refuge with Allah from the turmoil of the Dajjaal at the end of the prayer
  150. Further explanation about the Dajjaal so that people may protect themselves from him
  151. Arming oneself with Islamic knowledge
  152. Preparing for war against him, as the believers will do at that time
  153. What the Muslim should do if he meets the Dajjaal
  154. The death of the Dajjaal
  155. The toughest people against the Dajjaal
  156. Those who deny that the Dajjaal will emerge
  157. Major Sigh (2)
  158. The Descent of Eesa
  159. The story of Maryam’s bearing of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him)
  160. The birth of ‘Eesa
  161. Eesa speaks in the cradle
  162. The ascension of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him) to heaven
  163. Where does his title of “Messiah” come from?
  164. Evidence for the descent of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him)
  165. Evidence from the Qur’an
  166. Evidence from the Sunnah
  167. Explanation of the meaning of the Hadeeth
  168. Mutawaatir evidence for the descent of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him)
  169. The circumstances in which ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him) will descend
  170. Physical attributes of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him)
  171. The deeds of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him) and what will happen during his time
  172. The status of those who will be with ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (May Allah be pleased with her)
  173. The reason why ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him) and no one else will descend
  174. How long will ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him) stay on earth after he descends?
  175. The Hajj of ‘Eesa (Peace be upon him)
  176. Major sign (3)
  177. The emergence of Ya’Jooj and Ma’Jooj
  178. The story of the building of the barrier restraining Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj
  179. Who was Dhu’l-Qarnayn?
  180. Who are Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj?
  181. What is the religion of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj? Did the message of the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) reach them?
  182. Their huge number
  183. Their physical description
  184. How will they break through the barrier?
  185. Dha‘eef (weak) Hadeeths that have been narrated concerning them (Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj)
  186. Their destruction
  187. There will be no killing after Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj
  188. Hajj will continue after Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj
  189. Has anyone seen the barrier that Dhu’l-Qarnayn built to block Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj? Can anyone see it?
  190. Does the barrier of Dhu’l-Qarnayn have any connection to the Great Wall of China?
  191. Why haven’t satellites discovered the barrier of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj?
  192. Are the Muslims obliged to fight them?
  193. Major Sign 4,5 and 6
  194. Three land slides
  195. Meaning of landslide
  196. Hadeeths about the landslides
  197. Hadeeths which speak of a particular landslide
  198. Hadeeths about other landslides that occurred as punishment for sin
  199. Major Sign (7)
  200. The smoke
  201. Differences of scholarly opinion on what is meant by the smoke referred to in the Qur’an
  202. Hadeeths about the smoke
  203. Major sigh (8)
  204. The Beast
  205. Verses which speak of the Beast
  206. Where will it emerge?
  207. What is the real nature of the Beast?
  208. What will the Beast do?
  209. It will brand the people
  210. Major Sign (9)
  211. The rising of the sun from its place of setting
  212. Verses about the sun rising from its place of setting
  213. Hadeeths about the sun rising from its place of setting
  214. The command to hasten to do good deeds
  215. Major Sign (10)
  216. Fire which will drive the people to their place of gathering
  217. Hadeeths about this fire
  218. How it will gather the people
  219. Conclusion


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